Roseola is a viral infection that commonly affects infants and young children. It involves a pinkish-red skin rash and high fever.
Exanthem subitum; Sixth disease
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Roseola is common in children ages 3 months to 4 years, and most common in those ages 6 months to 1 year.
It is caused by a virus called human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), although similar syndromes are possible with other viruses.
The time between becoming infected and the beginning of symptoms (incubation period) is 5 to 15 days.
The first symptoms include:
- Eye redness
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- High fever, that comes on quickly and may be as high as 105 Fahrenheit and can last 3 to 7 days
About 2 - 4 days after becoming sick, the child's fever lowers and a rash appears. This rash usually:
- Starts on the middle of the body and spreads to the arms, legs, neck, and face.
- Pink or rose-colored,
- Has small sores that are slightly raised
The rash lasts from a few hours to 2 - 3 days. It usually does not itch.
Signs and tests
Your health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about the child's medical history. The child may have swollen lymph nodes in the neck or back of the scalp.
There is no specific treatment for roseola. The disease usually gets better on its own without complications.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and cool sponge baths can help reduce the fever. Some children may have seizures when they get high fevers. If this occurs, call your doctor or go to the closest emergency room.
Aseptic meningitis(rare) Encephalitis(rare) Febrile seizure
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if your child:
- Has a fever that does not go down with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) and a cool bath
- Continues to appear very sick
- Is irritable or seems extremely tired
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if your child has convulsions.
Careful handwashing can help prevent the spread of the viruses that cause roseola.
Leach CT. Roseola (human herpesviruses 6 and 7). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 253.
Caserta MT. Roseola. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 248.